Formal characteristics, which could be used to judge the fit between the kind of task being worked on and the formal practices of the organization. In the predictable manufacturing task environment, Akron had a pattern of formal relationships and duties that was highly structured and precisely defined. Further, details of two distinct theories, i. We lose money whenever they do. The objective was to explore more fully how the fit between organization and task was related to successful performance. These theories continue to be important even today. While the central thrust of these points is clear from the preceding discussion of the study, some elaboration can be made.
As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Implications for managers The major managerial implication of the Contingency Theory seems to rest in the task-organization-people fit. Theory X 'authoritarian management' style -People do not really like to work and will avoid it if at all possible so they must be coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment to get them to work. The age of heretics: Heroes, outlaws, and the forerunners of corporate change. According to McGregor, Theory Y offers a more successful and more positive approach to employee motivation than Theory X, since an employee whose physical or material needs have been met will still have higher-level needs that will not be fulfilled through Theory X management styles.
On the social psychology of agency relationships: Lay theories of motivation overemphasize extrinsic rewards. People will work without prodding; it has been their fate since Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden. Capabilities A democratic leadership style arises on the basis of Theory Y which allows the employees to have a greater say. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. Hi CintiaFiore, Thank you fior the positive comment on our resources. You can also find us on , and. This has important implications for management theory and practice.
However, neither of these extremes is optimal. Because of this, there was a definite feeling by the scientists that their particular expertise was not being effectively used in choosing projects. The authoritarian leadership style is therefore the most appropriate leadership style in Theory X. Conclusion The fundamental distinction between these two is treating employees like children and treating employees like adults. They tend to blame employees in most situations, without questioning the systems, policy, or lack of training which could be the real cause of failures. Although this interrelationship is complex, the best possibility for managerial action probably is in tailoring the organization to fit the task and the people.
As per assumption of McGregors theory X, the employees really dislike the work, so they are forced to do it. Theory Y has become more popular among organizations. The result was Theory Z—a development beyond Theory X and Theory Y that blended the best of Eastern and Western management practices. Maslow stresses the rarely satisfied higher level needs as the motivating force. The McGregor Theory X and Theory Y In 1960, developed a leadership theory McGregor Theory X and Theory Y about organization and management in which he represented two opposing perceptions about people. A mix of practices which ensure a healthy blend of systems and the freedom to perform at the work place is likely to motivate the employees more. Probably, when a need of an individual is satisfied, then another rise, soon it becomes a cycle and makes the individual to get motivated for the work in order to achieve such satisfaction.
Indeed, among managers, McGregor was the most well-known behavioral scientist of his time. At the same time, the approach based on Theory Y, while it has produced good results in some situations, does not always do so. People have greater responsibility, and managers encourage them to develop their skills and suggest improvements. Work Dislikes work Work is natural Ambition Little to no ambition Highly ambitious Responsibility Avoids responsibility. If it makes sense to the individuals involved, given their needs and their jobs, they will find it rewarding and motivating.
Managers who build on the basic principles of Theory X, are often met with a vicious circle in which their suppositions become reality and in which cause and effect are reversed. Mind Tools publicly available materials can be cited a referenced, but with specific requirements. It can be difficult for organizations and employees to make life-time employment commitments. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion. These include your organizational structure tiered or flat , the type of work that your people do repetitive or challenging , and their skill level amateur or experienced. How does the more formalized and controlling organization affect the motivation of organization members? This phenomenon of variable human behaviour is overlooked by McGregor. Douglas McGregor expressed his views of human nature in two sets of assumptions.
Definition and Assumptions of Theory Y Theory Y is based on an optimistic view of employee motivation and behavior. Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done. People want to avoid work and they must be continually coerced and controlled. And because they had different need patterns along these dimensions, both groups were highly motivated by achieving competence from quite different activities and settings. Therefore, the system of rewards and punishments works best for them. Managers with this assumption have a more collaborative relationship with their people, and motivate them by allowing them to work on their own initiative, giving them responsibility, and empowering them to make decisions.
The managers influenced by Theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. However, employees are still expected to have specialized career responsibilities. But you wouldn't use it when managing a team of , who are used to working under their own initiative, and need little direction. As a consequence, Stockton managers used a less structured pattern of formal practices that left the scientists in the lab free to respond to the changing task situation. Above assumptions are the results of social science research and determine such ability that an individual possesses, which should pointed-out by the organization with the aim to become extra effective. Douglas concluded that managers shaped their behavior towards workers based on either the X or Y views.