In collective behavior, a theory suggesting that certain crowds attract particular types of people, who may behave irrationally. But what happens after the baby is born? Ethnocentrism The tendency to see one's own culture as superior to all others. Social status, on the other hand, is generally a more finally graded, essentially linear variable with many possible scores. Modernization The economic and social transformation that occurs when a traditional agricultural society becomes highly industrialized. Vertical integration A form of business organization that attempts to control the business environment by assuming control of one or more of its resources or business outlets. Power elite According to Mills, a closely connected group of the corporate rich, political leaders, and military commanders who decide most key social and political issues.
Gender stratification The hierarchical ranking of men and women and their roles in terms of unequal ownership, power, social control, prestige, and social rewards. Dependent variable The variable that occurs or changes in a patterned way due to the presence of, or changes in, another variable or variables. The theory of the leisure class. Sects usually last longer and are more institutionalized than cults. Nonverbal communication Visual and other meaningful symbols that do not use language. It means the location of the individual within the group — his place in the social network of reciprocal obligations and privileges, duties and rights.
Every status carries with it some prestige, 7. Achieved status is earned based on merit; ascribed status is given to us by virtue of birth; and master status is the social status we view as the most important. Retreatism In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals abandon culturally valued means and goals. Negotiation A form of social interaction in which two or more parties in conflict or competition arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement. Science An approach used to obtain reliable knowledge about the physical and social worlds, based on systematic empirical observations; the knowledge so obtained. Occupational segregation The concentration of workers by gender or ethnicity into certain jobs but not others. Underground economy Exchanges of goods and services that occur outside the arena of the normal, regulated economy and therefore escape official record keeping.
Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change. Cultural relativism The view that the customs and ideas of a society must be viewed within the context of that society. In this example, Mike's master status is that of a father. These four terms are in common usage and we have to start somewhere, so here are some starting definitions which you should aim to move beyond. Open system In organizational theory, the degree to which an organization is open to and dependent on its environment.
This varies from position to position, from office to office. Gender differences Variations in the social positions, roles, behaviors, attitudes, and personalities of men and women in a society. Status and Role The term has two sociological uses: 1. Status-Role Inter-Relation: Status-role coordination is the woof and Warf arrangement of a social group. Some of these statuses are earned or achieved while others are ascribed.
Anomalies In science observations or problems that cannot be explained or solved in terms of a prevailing paradigm. Age itself would not be an achieved status because there is nothing you can do to change your age. For many parents, initially becoming a parent is an ascribed status. Shortly after his 32nd birthday, Mike completed his residency and became a practicing surgeon. A society organized according to social classes, then, allows for some social mobility.
Global economy An economy in which the economic life and health of one nation depends on what happens in other nations. Marriage rate Number of marriages in a year per 1000 single women 15 to 44 years old. Alternatively, one can be placed in the stratification system by their inherited position, which is called ascribed status. Stigmatization The process of spoiling a person's identity by labeling him or her in a negative way. Ascribed status has high value in agrarian societies where people are dependent on agriculture instead of industrialization. The first case was when my. Revolutionary movement A type of social movement whose aim is to reorganize existing society completely.
Within the last few weeks, I have had to decide whether being a parent is something I should disclose or not in work-related situations. Functional approach A theoretical approach that analyzes social phenomena in terms of their functions in a social system. My list of five included: woman, middle-class, college professor, mom, and white. Despite the long-established prominence of this concept in the field of sociology, status has been variously defined and employed. Sociologists, however, have a more complex understanding of the term.
Symbolic interactionism An interpretive perspective, inspired by the work of George Herbert Mead, saying that individuals learn meanings through interaction with others and then organize their lives around these socially created meanings. Culture lag The time difference between the introduction of material innovations and resulting changes in cultural practices. Status-role of a father, as the head of a family, in patriarchal society, like that of ours differs, from his status-role in a matriarchal society. These element and characteristics of status may be enumerated as below. Ascribed statuses can also be defined as those that are fixed for an individual at birth.
. Staff job In an organization, an advisory or administrative job that supports the manufacturing, production, selling, or other primary activities of the organization. There are no precondition for getting the ascribed status for example; the elder in the family is bound to be respected. A typical middle-class American woman, meanwhile, probably has many statuses, and therefore many roles. Weberian conflict theorists stress inequality and conflict based on class, status, power; Marxian theorists emphasize conflict and inequality based on ownership of the means of production. Social Class and Social Status - Psychology - Oxford. Subjective social class A person's own perception of his or her class position.