Factors and determinants of migration are rather diverse and they can be split up in economic and non-economic reasons: - economic push factors include unemployment or underemployment in rural areas, low wages and no assets as well as lack of land, which is sometimes due to inheritance systems that split the land among a large number of people, making it less productive - non-economic push factors play an additional role and mainly include a poor rural infrastructure in general, i. They may leave their current jobs in hope of finding higher paying ones as there are many more opportunities for employment to chose from in the city. The existing agricultural financing organizations should devote most of their resources to finance new rural production units. Living condition for most rural people have changed for better with improved medical care, improved health and longevity which has contributed to increase in population in rural areas thus pressure on the limited resources. Bechara Ji Sahab jii…ek kaaran ho toh bataun…lekin aap zor de rahe ho toh sunoo. They may wish to be exposed to a greater variety of opportunities, people, cultures, art, food and entertainment. One consequence of rural to urban migration is overcrowding.
Predominance of manmade Preliminaries influenced by natural environmental artificial environment. People migrate from one place or area to the other especially from rural to urban area for one thing or the other. As observed in many third world countries, such slums lack proper sanitation, which exposes residents to diseases like cholera. Conclusion Not only rural people but people in general are attracted to urban areas because they think that urban areas have better and greater opportunities than rural. It refers to the movement of people from the countryside respectively the rural areas into the cities, often the metropolitan cities of a country. At the moment villages in some African countries are widely scattered vast areas and in most cases too small to form viable economic units.
The new units should be established in areas with high agricultural potential. The causes of forced migration may be those of Sudan. The propensity to migrate from the rural areas to urban areas is presently high in West Africa, as a result of multifarious reasons. In many cases, not having urban registration also excludes migrant workers from many urban jobs. If they do not serve as destinations for rural-urban migration and are by-passed by migrants who move directly to the city, the development of urban infrastructure and services could help to redirect migration flows to smaller towns in rural areas rather than larger urban areas.
Informal sector has been categorized among those factors causing rural urban migration since it reduces individual risk of being unemployed once they migrate to cities McCatty, 12. These jobs includes, street vending, hustling, sharpening of knife, drug trafficking, maize roasting and even prostitution. What are the differences between rural and urban areas? There are so many reasons for this popular action. To ensure that rural production is properly marketed, there is a need to establish effective marketing organizations possibly on a cooperative basis to distribute inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and equipments and to buy the produce. In Europe the period in the 18th century was marked by a migration waves from the countryside to urban areas in unprecedented form and extent. In this same region, all good universities and polytechnics are located in urban areas. The growth in the working population will also mean more competition for jobs.
This movement is encouraged by the perceived large number of employment and business opportunities in urban areas. Depending on the country, farming gives seasonal employment with no enough income to sustain rural people thus being forced to move to urban areas in search for better and well paying jobs McCatty, 9. This will prove advantageous to employers who can decrease salaries offered as demand for jobs may outstrip the number of jobs available. The alleviation of income poverty can only be sustainable, if the poor themselves initiate and sustain the income-generating activity. The conflict was caused by desertification of the northern land which reduced fertility, lowering yields, which led to the migration for more arable land, causing tension between the two places.
The effects of this internal immigration are surprising, though. Governments tend to develop infrastructure and provide services initially in the urban areas only, because of their economies of scale. At present, along with the whole gamut of occupational diversification, spread of literacy, education, mass communication, etc, continuity between rural and urban areas has increased. Instead they increase the unemployment rate and health service demand in the cities. These push and pull factors include the following: 6. Farmers and other rural producers need to develop products that can compete in the open market in terms of price and quality as well as an entrepreneurial attitude.
Moreover, unemployment in urban areas contributes to several social ills, such as drug abuse and prostitution. Second - urbanization which refers to the fact of a significant increase in the proportion of people living in cities in the total population. In this regard, many of those migrating are left unemployed. In some countries, rural-urban migration has contributed to a high growth rate of slums. The scattered settlement pattern of the rural areas renders the provision of infrastructure and services too expensive. Bajracharya, Bhishna Nanda 1995 It is important to see which infrastructure and services can be decentralized from urban centers and which have to be provided locally in the rural areas. Additionally the internal migration has a gender aspect in many countries as most migrants are young male adults.
Decentralization Because national governments find it increasingly difficult to meet the great variety of needs and demands for public goods and services by population groups across the country, it is privatizing the delivery of some goods and services and it is decentralizing some national government function to local governments in urban and rural areas. Rural-urban migration is prevalent in developing countries with its degree varying from country to country. In many rural areas around the world — especially in developing countries there are not too many modern infrastructure facilities such as good entertainment centers, parks, electricity, potable water supply, etc. There are so many good educational opportunities in the cities. One of its negative effects is higher crime rate. Rural land tenure and pattern of inheritance is another factor resulting in voluntary rural urban migration.
First - urban growth which means that towns and cities are spatially expanding. Bajracharya, Bhishna Nanda 1995 The opening of the domestic markets to the global economy lead to the improvement of transport and communication networks and this means that goods and services from the villages and the rural areas can reach the global markets more easily, but also that goods and services from the global market can reach the villages and the rural areas and compete with local products. In some of these places, young girls and boys who want to escape being the victims of certain outmoded and barbaric cultural practices flee their villages and towns to the big cities where these outmoded cultural practices are not practiced. Almost all of the cities above have a population that is at least 20 million. Shortage of basic amenities: As more people migrate into urban areas, the existing facilities, such as hospitals and schools, may become overutilized. Modernization of Agriculture Agricultural modernization contributes a lot toward rural urban migration especially in developing countries.