Empirical evidences about the working of modern oligopolistic firms reveal that there are a variety of marketing channels that help in increasing the sales of a product as against its rivals. They are as under: 1. Total loss will be measured by multiplying loss per unit of output to the total output, i. In other words, price is greater than marginal cost. The amounts he can sell at any given price depend upon the conditions of demand for his good. Selling both bundles and items separately is mixed bundling. It signifies that the firm will cover only average variable cost from the prevailing price.
There are often deviations from posted prices because of trade-ins, allowance and secret price concessions. Or, it may change the features and packaging of its product in such a way that it appeals more to buyers. Marginal Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as quantity of his product. Sales are confined to the stocks available and in sight. The fundamental distinguishing characteristic of imperfect competition is that average revenue curve slopes downwards throughout its length, but it slopes downwards at different rates in different categories of imperfect competition. He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error.
He is in the position of a monopolist. He may do all sorts of things to prevent the entry of new firms. Consumers will buy more but only at a lower price. But the monopolist is the sole seller of a commodity. Consequently, no buyer can influence the price of the product. Non-price Competition refers to the efforts on the part of one oligopolistic firm to increase its sales by some means other than a price reduction.
On the other hand, if the oligopolistic firm increases its price, its rivals will not follow it and change their prices. The Market Period : The implications of monopolisation are best understood in contrast to the results in a perfectly competitive market. Marginal revenue is always less than price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Destruction of Surplus: It benefits the monopolist to let the surplus over the optimum level of sales perish.
Only if it stops adding to revenue, will he stop selling more. However, under monopoly, the marginal revenue equals average cost at the optimum scale, as Fig. Then the monopolist will try to fix a low price and sell more units. On the other hand, if his firm is working under conditions of increasing costs, cost of production per unit will rise as output increases. Therefore, in the long run, equilibrium is established when firms are earning only normal profits. Sometimes, the monopolist may just have an exclusive licence from the government to produce the good. It is further illustrated in the following diagram:.
It is truly a balance of the two market components. This is a range where the demand curve lies above the average variable cost. Accordingly, the demand curve of the organization constitutes the demand curve of the entire industry. Since production affects cost, the monopolist must first decide whether to produce at all or not. In case, the monopolist increases the supply of the commodity, the price of it will fall.
Market Equilibrium : The equilibrium of the monopolist is also the market equilibrium, since he is the sole seller in the market, and since he allows for the market demand curve while making his equilibrium choice. Output: Unlike in perfect competition, there are no systematic forces driving the monopolist to operate at the optimum scale of production in the long run. Since the product has been manufactured in the past, costs are of no relevance to him. The firm will close down. In other words, marginal revenue is equal to price.
It shows that firm is working under no profit, no loss basis. This portion of its demand curve is relatively inelastic. Introduction Price is arrived at by the interaction between demand and supply. Advantages : Thus perfect collusion by oligopolistic firms in the form of a cartel has certain advantages. Of course, everyone who enters business aims at getting maximum profit.
Assumptions : This model is based on the following assumptions: 1 The oligopolistic industry consists of a large dominant firm and a number of small firms. But under monopoly, the difference between firm and industry goes. Thus the behaviour of the monopolist with ample stocks is different from the firms in perfect competition. So he can control the supply of his good. Price Stability Note that two forces contribute to the size of a price change: the amount of the shift and the elasticity of demand or supply. Total Revenue and Total Cost Approach.
For that, he can do one of the following two things. Pricing Objectives: Another important factor, affecting the price of a product or service is the pricing objectives. His price in the market with a higher elasticity of demand will be less than his price in the other market. The monopolist may hold some patents or copyright that limits the entry of other players in the market. Assumptions : The kinked demand curve hypothesis of price rigidity is based on the following assumptions: 1 There are few firms in the oligopolistic industry.