The monarchies were gone, and the king no longer ruled. The provincial parlements responded angrily and met with the same fate. After paying all these taxes, they hardly had enough money to feed themselves. Over the next 10 years. A Directory comprising five directors exercised power 1795-1799. Louis the 16 th was unable to make the 1st and 2nd help pay, and Marie-Antoinette was a convenient scapegoat. The Marxist, which portrayed the revolution as bringing about the final end to the feudal system making the way for the emergence of the modern capitalist society.
Unfortunately, the damage had been done: the parlements had been clearly shown as weak and subject to the king's wishes, not the invulnerable moderating element they wished to be. For example, John Locke argued that a leader may only govern a society if he has the consent of those he is governing. The French Revolution may be approved as an entire part of a permanent revolution whose origins are both economic and political. The idea of a government—and king—operating with a series of constitutional checks and balances had grown to be vitally important in France, and it was the existing 13 parlements which were considered—or at least considered themselves—the vital check on the king. The clergy and nobles did not have to pay most taxes.
Immediate Cause of the Revolution: The immediate factor which caused the outbreak of the Revolution was the bankruptcy faced by the Government. The conscious and intelligent people felt disgusted with the affairs of the state and raised their voice for reforms. For example, during the American War of Independence against Britain, France allied itself with the United States and helped support the American war efforts. There were also various class orders of people that participated in various ways in propelling the nation into a Revolution, with direct and indirect actions. More specifically, in the decade before the outbreak of the revolution France experienced drastic shifts in the weather that negatively effected the food production of the country.
. The growing financial crises reached its climax in 1788 as the disrupted state machinery, caught between changes of system, couldn't bring in the required sums, a situation exacerbated as bad weather ruined the harvest. He then drew up a plan to avenge the loss by building a larger navy and an anti-British coalition of allies. The war had effectively led to the middle-class control of 1789 giving way to the popular democracy of the sans-culottes. When the political ,social and economicconditions in France decline the writers and philosophers evoked anew light of hope in the common masses with their writings whichsubsequently acted as an intellectual cause of french rev … olution. The ideas of 'public opinion,' 'nation,' and 'citizen' emerged and grew, along with a sense that the state's authority had to be defined and legitimized in a new, broader framework which took more notice of the people instead of simply reflecting the monarch's whims. The first estate or the clergy were enjoying privileges and the clergy did not pay tax instead determined the amount.
Taxation of the lands and homes of the people of the 3rd estate took away most of their money because they had to pay for the extravagant spending of the nobles and clergy. Peaesents didn't have to pay more taxes after Napoleon took charge. As a result, the winter of 1784 was severe in Europe and the following summers included extreme droughts that caused poor harvests and famine. Enlightenment philosophers like John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu questioned the traditional absolute authority of the monarch and divisions of society like the Estates System. There were many factors that contributed to the spark of the revolution. The French Revolution, however, created tension and an intense sense of insecurity throughout France.
This added to the already massive Government debt. In contrast, the Third Estate was forced to pay heavy taxes while the other two were exempted. The social structures of France along with the changing demographics are one of these causes. The primary cause of the revolution was the disputes over the peoples' differing ideas of reform. Troops were sent into Massachusetts to strengthen British authority. As stated above, both Skocpol and Goldstone see beyond class struggle as the primary causes of revolutions, because class struggle comes from something much deeper than a supposed alienation or unhappiness of lower classes in compared to the hierarchy. After their great revolution of 1789, France was the acknowledged leader of the progressive opinion in Europe.
But Guizot, the King's minister refused to accept any demands. This post raises the point that class is not the only factor in a revolution but that there are instead many different circumstances that could contribute to a rise of a revolution. Louis Philippe not only failed to bring about implementation of effective welfare measures to the working class but also tried to suppress the growing working class consciousness. Finding himself popular, Napoleon overthrew the Directory. These groups varied widely in what they contributed to France, in terms of both work and taxes. The condition of the farmers was very miserable.
The First Estate owned nearly 10 percent of all land in France. The French Monarchs engaged themselves in luxurious and extravagance at the royal court of Versailles. Middle The Third Estate comprised of most of the population, ranging from rich businessmen to poor peasants. The three main causes of French revolution are as follows: 1. The French made several constitutional experiments till the establishment of the third Republic in 1871.
The french revolution made a lot of changes happen. The third estate felt that even though they were the largest of the three estates, taking up ninety seven percent of the population, their ideas and well being was not being taken into account. The French Revolution of 1789 was inarguably a significant turning point in the history of Europe. The frustration of the peasants angered them to revol t. Before the beginning of the Revolution, only moderate reforms were wanted by the people.
The peasants had to work for long hours and pay separate taxes to the Crown, to the clergy and to the nobility. But due to this policy, the national debt of France increased from 300,000,000 to 600,000,000 Franks only in three years. As the revolution proceeded, power devolved from the monarchy and the privileged-by-birth to more-representative political bodies, like legislative assemblies, but conflicts among the formerly allied republican groups became the source of considerable discord and bloodshed. Depiction of the Three Estates in France 2 Tax Burden on the Third Estate The First Estate in France, or the clergy, owned 10% of the land though it comprised less than 0. The Revolution led to the development of new political forces such as democracy and nationalism. The cost of living rose for everyone, and the price of bread doubled in 1789, and many people faced starvation.