However, because there is no optimal way for a manager to choose between adopting either Theory X or Theory Y, it is likely that a manager will need to adopt both approaches depending on the evolving circumstances and levels of internal and external locus of control throughout the workplace. After reading you will understand the background and the practical basics of these leadership styles. Nature of Management Style Theory X is an authoritative management style. If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their jobs. Besides, the individual will work with own interests as the individual is focused on the goals of the organization.
In this type of management style, even a small employee can participate in the decision-making process. The other assumption under theory X is that the employees need to be threatened or forced to work towards the organizational goals. Theory Y assumes that employees are self-motivated, and flourish on responsibility. Once you register, you will not be asked for this information next time we publish a special report as long as you use the same browser. Employment is usually long-term, and promotion is steady and measured.
The reason of their failures may be something other which they do not want to see. About the Author Madison Hawthorne holds a bachelor's degree in creative writing, a master's degree in social work and a master's degree in elementary education. A system is made up of a variety of parts that work together to achieve a goal. The soft appoach is to be permissive and seek harmony with the hope that in return employees will cooperate when asked to do so. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section. Due to the above characteristics of the employees, managers have to impose duties on them to get the work done and supervise them on a continuous basis.
Systems theory is a broad perspective that allows managers to examine patterns and events in the workplace. Theory Y has its fundamental concern on the satisfaction of employees. Do you recognize the practical explanation of do you have more suggestions? Unlike Theories X and Y, Theory Z recognizes a transcendent dimension to work and worker motivation. McGregor promoted Theory Y as the basis of good management practice, pioneering the argument that workers are not merely cogs in the company machinery, as Theory X-Type organizations seemed to believe. Influence A good manager will realize that leadership affects employee behaviour.
If the successor is chosen within the organisation, it will help motivate the employees, and also save on cost and extra time which the management would have spent in scanning candidates from other firms. This leads to loyalty from team members. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Managers in a university may want to utilize a leadership approach that includes participation from workers, while a leader in the army may want to use an autocratic approach. An organization with this style of management is made up of several levels of supervisors and managers who actively intervene and micromanage the employees. McGregor himself held to the belief that Theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X. Thus, they can be positively appoached by the managers for problem solving leading to improved results compared to alternative approach of authoritarian measures.
She has been a writer for more than five years, served as a magazine submission reviewer and secured funding for a federal grant for a nonprofit organization. Work Dislikes work Work is natural Ambition Little to no ambition Highly ambitious Responsibility Avoids responsibility. The managers influenced by Theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. Systems Theory Managers who understand systems theory recognize how different systems affect a worker and how a worker affects the systems around them. The test is a simple reflective tool, not a scientifically validated instrument; it's a learning aid and broad indicator. Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are ongoing needs that, for most people, are never completely satisfied.
Theory X In Theory X, summarizes the traditional view of management in a number of characteristic assumptions in which autocratic leadership style, close supervision and the hierarchical principle are the key elements. And this is really the essence of managing upwards X theory managers - focus and get agreement on the results and deadlines - if you consistently deliver, you'll increasingly be given more leeway on how you go about the tasks, which amounts to more freedom. Theory Y manager will try to remove the barriers that prevent workers from fully actualizing themselves. According to McGregor, there are two opposing approaches to implementing Theory X: the hard approach and the soft approach. However, McGregor asserts that neither approach is appropriate, since the basic assumptions of Theory X are incorrect. There is little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized.
According to Theory Z, people want to maintain a work-life balance, and they value a working environment in which things like family, culture, and traditions are considered to be just as important as the work itself. There are four main stages in the succession planning process, which involve transition movement of new role , initiation, selection, and education. Description of Theory Y Management influenced by this theory assumes that employees are ambitious, self-motivated and anxious to accept greater responsibility and exercise self-control, self-direction, autonomy and empowerment. Under Theory Z management, not only do workers have a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers, they also develop a sense of order, discipline, and a moral obligation to work hard. Theory Y approach to management has gained increased popularity compared to theory X approach since the objectives of the organization can be better linked to the objectives of the employees.