Management is not an exact science based on precedents. With its major emphasis on human relations, informal groups, communication, employee motivation and leadership styles, the behaviour approach to management has drawn attention to a wide range of socio-psychological phenomena like the dynamics of organisational behaviour, group dynamics, organisational conflict, change and techniques of organisational development. The approach of this school may be to deal with the decision itself or with the persons or organizational group making the decision or with an analysis of the decision process. Hicks has divided the period into four distinct stages. From his observations, Frank isolated the basic movements necessary to do the job and eliminated unnecessary motions. Henri Fayol remained active in defining his perspective of management during the times of F. It does not view management strictly as a technical process.
While on the other hand, they also improved the time-and-motion method that was introduced by Taylor. It distinguishes that all the subsystem of the environment are interconnected and interrelated. These kinds of managers then treat their subordinates as if their assumptions are true. What was the impact of changes in equipment? Interview technique is used extensively for the selection of managerial posts. Surprisingly enough, they discovered that worker productivity increased as the lighting levels decreased — that is, until the employees were unable to see what they were doing, after which performance naturally declined. Later managers realized that organizations do not improve by only increasing the efficiency of workers and productivity. After long experience, employees discovered that such certificates were not always very reliable as they indicate only paper qualifications.
Scientific Management focuses on worker and machine relationships. For appropriate selection, scientific procedure needs to be followed. It goes too far in insisting that people need to be made happy so that the organisation can function effectively. From the fall of 1924 to the spring of 1927, three series of tests were conducted and carefully monitored. Books and periodicals are published regularly on management.
The main thrust of the social system is to study different aspects of social systems. The better alternative is to select talented persons as trainee managers and develop their qualities through special training and wider exposures. This is the origin of the term Hawthorne effect, which describes the special attention researchers give to a study's subjects and the impact that attention has on the study's findings. He needs tact and imagination while dealing with personnel problems. However, medical examination has special importance in armed forces.
He has to perform various functions which are responsible in nature and also delicate. It motivates him for self-improvement. Job means an activity performed in one or the other department of a business unit. This school of thought is made up of two branches: classical scientific and classical administrative, described in the following sections. A case is a written account giving certain details of the situation is relation to a specific matter. But management is appeared as a different discipline in the second half of 19th century with the beginning of Joint Stock Company. At present, such test is given in the case of all types of jobs.
Taylor being an engineer, advocated the teaching of principles of efficiency to engineers through a subject named industrial engineering. In quantitative approach of early management thought, Charles Babbage 1792—1871 is recognized as the supporter of operations research and management science. Bureaucratic Management Another classical management theory is Bureaucratic views of management that may seen everywhere in both public and private institutes and organizations. A contemporary of Taylor, Fayol for the first time attempted a systematic analysis of the overall management process. Contingency theorists often implicitly or explicitly disapprove the classical approach as it focuses on the universality of management principles. Introduction of appropriate selection tests and procedures is also possible as per the manpower requirements. They have expanded their area of theory building from the decision making process to the study of the decision maker.
Thus the empirical schools of thought depends heavily on the precedents connected with the managerial situations handled by the managers and their own experience on the ground that research and thought evolved in the course of study is sure to help in ready verifications of principles. Many pioneers during as E. In terms of scholars and managers who contributed to the behavioral school, Hugo Munsterberg published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency in 1912. Thus ,this study developed the best way of doing the job ,replacing the old rule of thumb. These problems come within the scope of personnel management which is one important area of total business management.
The understudy will learn the job of his superior through observation and participation in the. This is an improved and more matured description of human relations approach. In addition, proper placement as per qualifications and qualities of employees is possible due to job analysis. Harold Koonti, therefore, has tried to cross through jungle and to classify the various approaches into schools of management theory. Scientific Management concentrates on technical aspects as well as on profit and economy.
But times change, and innovative ideas from the past suddenly take on new meanings. Planning, organizing, recruiting, directing and controlling, etc everything comes under the Responsibilities of Manager. A proper distinction should be made between the subject-matter of management and the tools of analysis of different subjects, which are not a part of management discipline. Thanks to these contributors and others, the basic ideas regarding scientific management developed. This communication occurs via informal communication channels rather than the formal, hierarchical ones. Even promotions and transfers are covered by this broad personnel function. Bureaucratic management denotes to the perfect type of organization.