He outlines five characteristic stages in the spread of English: Phase 1 - Foundation: This is the initial stage of the introduction of English to a new territory over an extended period of time. Problem 4 : At a certain conference of 100 people there are 29 Indian women and 23 Indian men. The estimates of these users range from 100 million to one billion. The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is as high as 380 million, of whom some 120 million are outside the United States. Attempts have been made to describe the spread of the language with various models. However, it remains to be seen whether such a will take place. It shows how colonization, history, and politics played a role in the spread of English in the different countries.
Example 1 A Canadian manager has been posted to the Athens office of his organization. This gives rise to 'conflicting discourses' of the kind noted by Prodromou 1988 in his account of the impact of English in contemporary Greece and by Pennycook in Malaysia and Singapore. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. Inter-cultural communication involves individuals in contact, negotiating meanings at local level, but drawing on frames and norms derived from their own cultural habits and identities. Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspective. Higher education, the and , national commerce and so on may all be carried out predominantly in English. Thus competence embraces not only appropriateness -- that is, sociolinguistic competence -- but also the communication of speaker intentions -- that is, illocutionary competence.
It is often suggested that languages are , while dialects are. The expanding circle includes those nations which acknowledge the importance of English as an International Language. And if the boss is unaware of the effects of this, he is operating under an illusion which may one day be rudely shattered. Ever since English became the official language, a localized variety gradually emerged -. By the 19th century, the expansion of the , as well as global trade, had led to the spread of English around the world.
The notion of varieties in this context is similarly dynamic, as new contexts, new realities, new discourses, and new varieties continue to emerge. Teaching English as an International Language. The most influential model of the spread of English is 's model of World Englishes. Crystal wonders it is difficult to distinguish whether the Outer Circle looks to Inner Circle norms or it creates its own norms. On the other hand, there are at least 1500 languages present on the internet now and that figure is likely to increase. Out of these Indian people 4 are doctors and 24 are either men or doctors.
Yet, as Blommaert points out, no one's culture can be 'zero-ed' because we each occupy a sort of 'ethnic habitus' that makes us part of our culture group and distinct from members of other groups. Lately, linguist Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales argued that this variety has in itself more varieties, suggesting that we move towards paradigm to progress further in Schneider's dynamic model after gathering evidences of such happening. After all, there are individual differences in these competencies, and as Agar 1994 reminds us, we have to remember that in any inter-cultural encounter, 'it's persons not cultures that are in contact'. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of English in different regions of the world. The English used in the outer circle is considered as 'norm-developing'. World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students. Communicative English With apologies to fifth grade English teachers everywhere, the most likely outcome of the burgeoning number of non-native English speakers is an increased emphasis on communicative ability rather than technical correctness.
Let us consider the following example, to have better understanding of the above stuff explained using venn diagram. It cannot account for the growing use of English, namely English as a lingua franca between speakers who do not share a first language Mollin, 2006, p. Although the spread of English, as Pennycook has noted:. The terms and are not easily defined concepts. English as a Global Language. By this time, the indigenous strand has also stabilized an system that is a synthesis of substrate effects, interlanguage processes and features adopted from the settlers' English. The three circles Let us begin with Kachru's classification of English as a World Language as consisting of three circles Kachru, 1982, 1988.
We will then send you an email with your user name your email address and assigned password. Solution : Step 1 : Let F, H and C represent the set of students who play foot ball, hockey and cricket respectively. Understanding both the biblical foundations and biblical missionary practices is essential to joining the everyday mission of God. The distribution of the actual language implies adoption and conformity. In many fields of scholarship, the major international journals are now published entirely in English.
The varieties used here are what Kachru calls 'norm-developing': in regions using these varieties there has been a conflict between lingusitic norm and linguistic behaviour. Draw Venn diagram to represent these data. At the center are the native speakers, such as Americans, Canadians, and the English. The definition of native English speakers used is persons who learnt English at a young age and u se it consistently as a means of communication in d ifferent spheres of life, i. In Discourse Across Cultures: Strategies in World Englishes, edited by L. English in began with trade.